Year of Publication


Paper Type

Master's Thesis


College of Arts and Sciences

Degree Name

Master of Science in Applied Sociology (MSAS)


Sociology and Anthropology

First Advisor

Dr. Elizabeth Stearns

Second Advisor

Dr. Jeffry Will


This research examines possible contextual effects upon gender role attitudes in the United States related to women's employment outside ofthe household. The study included individual-level data, mother's previous work status and mother's educational attainment, not previously analyzed in a hierarchical linear model and state-level data not previously investigated, particularly state median household income. The primary analyses focus upon the contextual effects of state-level educational attainment and income. Analyzing General Social Survey data from 1994 to 2002, these contextual data were not found to have an effect upon the gender work role beliefs. In fact, none of the examined state-level variables were statistically significant in detecting contextual effects. These findings contradict earlier research, which found the proportion of religious fundamentalists within a state to have a contextual effect upon gender role attitudes.