Year of Publication


Season of Publication


Paper Type

Doctoral Dissertation


College of Education and Human Services

Degree Name

Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)



NACO controlled Corporate Body

University of North Florida. Department of Leadership, School Counseling & Sports Management

First Advisor

Dr. Katherine L. Kasten

Second Advisor

Dr. Larry G. Daniel

Third Advisor

Dr. Warren Hodge

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Sharon Wilburn

Department Chair

Dr. Jennifer J. Kane

College Dean

Dr. Larry G. Daniel


The foundation for the present study was based on the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2001), Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) 2004, and Florida Response to Intervention (RTI) (Florida RTI, 2009). In line with the NCLB Act, Florida requires students to pass the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) on grade level in order to graduate (FL-DOE, 2001). In alignment with the RTI framework, READ 180 is presently being implemented as a Tier 2 intervention with adolescent struggling readers across the nation. The methodology for this research was a retrospective research design, with the use of multiple regression and logistic regression models which are consistent with the purpose. Neither of the analyses indicated a significant relationship between READ 180 and the attainment of the minimum yearly gain on the developmental scale score (DSS) of the reading portion of the FCAT. The data analyses supported previous research results indicating that students who are identified as White, from non-low SES families, and not identified with a disability, have more academic success. The results indicated that the regular classroom with reading strategies instruction was just as effective for promoting reading achievement as the separate classroom with specific reading instruction. Because students who participated in the intensive reading intervention forfeit the opportunity to participate in other courses, policy makers and educators need to weigh carefully the costs and benefits of such programs.