Pore Formation During Solidification of Aluminum: Reconciliation of Experimental Observations, Modeling Assumptions, and Classical Nucleation Theory
An in-depth discussion of pore formation is presented in this paper by first reinterpreting in situ observations reported in the literature as well as assumptions commonly made to model pore formation in aluminum castings. The physics of pore formation is reviewed through theoretical fracture pressure calculations based on classical nucleation theory for homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, with and without dissolved gas, i.e., hydrogen. Based on the fracture pressure for aluminum, critical pore size and the corresponding probability of vacancies clustering to form that size have been calculated using thermodynamic data reported in the literature. Calculations show that it is impossible for a pore to nucleate either homogeneously or heterogeneously in aluminum, even with dissolved hydrogen. The formation of pores in aluminum castings can only be explained by inflation of entrained surface oxide films (bifilms) under reduced pressure and/or with dissolved gas, which involves only growth, avoiding any nucleation problem. This mechanism is consistent with the reinterpretations of in situ observations as well as the assumptions made in the literature to model pore formation.
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Yousefian, & Tiryakioğlu, M. (2017). Pore Formation During Solidification of Aluminum: Reconciliation of Experimental Observations, Modeling Assumptions, and Classical Nucleation Theory. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 49(2), 563–575. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-017-4438-6