Creating ground truth for audio key finding: When the title key may not be the key

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Conference Proceeding

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In this paper, we present an effective and efficient way to create an accurately labeled dataset to advance audio key finding research. The MIREX audio key finding contest has been held twice using classical compositions for which the key is designated in the title. The problem with this accepted practice is that the title key may not be the perceived key in the audio excerpt. To reduce manual annotation, which is costly, we use a confusion index generated by existing audio key finding algorithms to determine if an audio excerpt requires manual annotation. We collected 3224 excerpts and identified 727 excerpts requiring manual annotation. We evaluate the algorithms' performance on these challenging cases using the title keys, and the re-labeled keys. The musicians who aurally identify the key also provide comments on the reasons for their choice. The relabeling process reveals the mismatch between title and perceived keys to be caused by tuning practices (in 471 of the 727 excerpts, 64.79%), and other factors (188 excerpts, 25.86%) including key modulation and intonation choices. The remaining 68 challenging cases provide useful information for algorithm design. © 2012 International Society for Music Information Retrieval.

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Proceedings of the 13th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference, ISMIR 2012

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