Student and Teacher Predictors on Credit Recovery Program Outcomes: A National Analysis





Paper Type

Doctoral Dissertation


College of Education and Human Services

Degree Name

Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Leadership, School Counseling & Sport Management

First Advisor

Kenneth T. Wilburn, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

La'Tara Osborne-Lampkin Ph.D.

Third Advisor

David Whittinghill, Ph.D.

Fourth Advisor

E. Newton Jackson, Jr. Ph.D.

Department Chair

E. N. Jackson, Jr. Ph.D.

College Dean

Larry G. Daniel, Ph.D.


As accountability for student achievement increases, educational leaders in high schools have turned to alternative e-learning options via credit recovery programs to assist in meeting the needs of students who have been unsuccessful in the traditional setting. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationships existing between student and teacher characteristics and credit recovery program outcomes. Four student independent variables: Student Prior Experience, Student Prior Grade, Student Attitude and Student Confidence; as well as three teacher independent variables: Teacher Prior Experience, Teacher Training Total and Teacher Confidence were analyzed for statistical significance with the dependent variable—credit recovery program outcome (numeric grade). The sample consisted of high school students (N=227) and teachers (N=55) participating in E2020 online credit recovery programs in which 1402 program outcomes were analyzed across six states. Correlation analysis was conducted to determine statistically significant relationships between the student and teacher independent variables and credit recovery program outcome. Results of the correlation analysis yielded only one independent variable to be statistically significant with outcome --Teacher Confidence. Statistically significant relationships among independent variables were discussed. A subpopulation of matched student-to-teacher outcomes (N=254) was developed for multiple regression analysis to determine student and teacher predictors on credit recovery program outcome. Results of multiple linear regression indicated significance of independent variable influence as follows: Teacher Training Total, Teacher Prior Experience, Student Attitude, Student Confidence, Student Prior Experience, Teacher Confidence, and Student Prior Grade. Recommendations for practice and future research were presented.

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