Paper Type

Master's Thesis


College of Computing, Engineering & Construction

Degree Name

Master of Science in Civil Engineering (MSCE)



NACO controlled Corporate Body

University of North Florida. School of Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Raphael Crowley

Second Advisor

Dr. Brian Wingender

Third Advisor

Dr. Terri Ellis

Department Chair

Dr. Osama Jadaan

College Dean

Dr. William F. Klostermeyer


Ottawa 50/70 sand specimens and natural beach sand samples were treated using bio-augmented geomicrobies via a surface percolation technique. Testing was conducted on these specimens to determine how resultant calcium carbonate precipitation changed as a function of temperature, depth from the surface, and in the presence of magnesium. Specifically, x-ray Diffraction (XRD), a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine and quantify the presence of calcium carbonate and its associated phase. Results showed a direct relationship between temperature and precipitated calcium carbonate. In addition, as an unintended consequence associated with the treatment, ammonium chloride was produced. This ammonium chloride appears to mostly have formed upon the specimens’ surfaces, and its quantity appears to be inversely proportional to the quantity of precipitated calcium carbonate. This result has important implications in upscaling in the sense that the results imply that there may be some benefits associated with reducing ammonium chloride precipitation during the microbial reaction. The addition of magnesium led to inconclusive results in the sense that very little calcification was observed during this portion of the study.