Paper Type

Master's Thesis


College of Arts and Sciences

Degree Name

Master of Science in Psychological Science (MSPS)



NACO controlled Corporate Body

University of North Florida. Department of Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Sara Davis

Second Advisor

Dr. Juliana Leding

Department Chair

Dr. Lori Lange

College Dean

Dr. Jody Nicholson


The testing effect is a well-studied and robust phenomenon. The forward testing effect is a relatively new phenomenon that has been observed in robust settings with a diverse population. The testing effect (also coined the backwards testing effect) and the forward testing effect share similar benefits and are applicable in similar settings. Research on the forward testing effect has demonstrated underlying mechanisms that differ from the backwards testing effect, illuminating the differences between these two phenomena. Dividing attention during study periods has been revealed to negatively affect the backwards testing effect, significantly reducing its efficacy. The forward testing effect, operating under different underlying mechanisms, may be less susceptible to the negative impact of dividing attention. The current experiment consisted of 135 participants divided into one of four conditions; divided attention/test, divided attention/restudy, full attention/test, and full attention restudy. I hypothesized that dividing attention during encoding will not have the same detrimental effects on the forward testing effect as it does on the backwards testing effect. I hypothesized a main effect of attention, such that the full attention condition will have higher recall on a criterial test. I hypothesized a main effect of testing, such that those in the test condition will have higher recall on a criterial test. A factorial ANOVA analysis revealed a significant forward testing effect. The results of the experiment help to elaborate a resource theory explanation for the FTE. Limitations to be considered include online participants and the inclusion of only an auditory attention manipulation.