Paper Type

Master's Thesis


College of Computing, Engineering & Construction

Degree Name

Master of Science in Civil Engineering (MSCE)



NACO controlled Corporate Body

University of North Florida. School of Engineering

First Advisor

Raphael Crowley, Ph.D., P.E

Second Advisor

Ryan Shamet, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

James Gelsleichter, Ph.D.

Department Chair

Alan Harris, Ph. D.

College Dean

William Klosermeyer, Ph.D.


Over the years, anthropogenic noise generated by pile driving activities has increased, posing a significant concern for marine organisms and their ecosystems. This study aims to entail a comprehensive frequency analysis of a new empirical model to predict underwater transmission loss during impact pile driving. To achieve this objective, extensive data collection was undertaken, and spectral and frequency analyses were conducted to examine the frequency content and attenuation patterns of the sound. The results of the study reveal that sound attenuation is frequency-dependent. Notably, low frequencies, typically below 100 Hz, and very high frequencies, approximately 10 kHz, were found to attenuate rapidly as they propagate from the source. Mid-range frequencies exhibit the slowest attenuation and contribute significantly to the spectral energy. The frequency dependency in attenuation is related to geometrical spreading and source-level characteristics, represented by the F-value in the Practical Spreading Loss Model. The findings suggest that low-frequency noise, which can interfere with marine mammal communication and foraging, may dissipate quickly near the source, potentially reducing biological impacts.

Available for download on Monday, August 04, 2025