Paper Type

Doctoral Dissertation


College of Education and Human Services

Degree Name

Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)



First Advisor

Dr. Kenneth Wilburn

Second Advisor

Dr. William Herrold

Third Advisor

Dr. Mary D'Zamko


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the use of a school-wide token economy program on middle school students' achievement, behavior, and attitudes toward school. This involved the comparison of two similar suburban middle schools, one of which used a school-wide token economy program.

A nonequivalent control-group design was used to examine: (1) the effects on achievement as measured by grades and honor roll status; (2) the effects on behavior as measured by numbers of students attaining perfect attendance, numbers of punches earned, and numbers of detentions and suspensions; and (3) the effects on attitude as measured by the School Attitude Measure (SAM). Data were gathered from school guidance and disciplinary records.

The results indicated that there was a statistically significant relationship between the token economy program and student achievement as measured by grades and honor roll status in the A/B honor roll (p

Implications and limitations of the study are discussed. Suggestions for further research are presented.

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