Paper Type

Doctoral Dissertation


College of Education and Human Services

Degree Name

Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)



First Advisor

Dr. Joyce T. Jones

Second Advisor

Dr. Kenneth T. Wilburn

Third Advisor

Dr. William J. Wilson

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Chudley E. Werch

Fifth Advisor

Dr. W. David Whittinghill

Department Chair

Dr. Kenneth T. Wilburn

College Dean

Dr. Larry G. Daniel


This study examined the relationship between student use of substances and extent of participation in school and/or community sponsored sport or nonsport activity. The study also examined student substance use and extent of participation in sport or nonsport activity together with extent of employment.

Data were provided by 24,699 public school youths who attended grades 6 through 12 and completed the 2001-2002 Duval Secondary Substance Use and Violence Survey: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors. Frequency tables, crosstabulation, chi-square tests, and loglinear analysis were used to analyze the data.

The study found: (a) a higher percentage of respondents who participated in 11 or more hours of sport/athletic activity or nonsport activity reported using substances almost every day than did respondents who participated in 1-5 hours of activity (b) a higher percentage of students reported using alcohol almost every day when involved in greater than 20 hours of work per week and 11 or more hours of sport/athletic or nonsport participation than did those with lesser involvement in activity in conjunction with work at any level.

Extracurricular programs and student employment may function as protective factors in discouraging adolescent substance use. Extracurricular programs and student employment may also place the student at greater risk for substance abuse when such involvement exceeds 20 hours per week in work and more than 11 hours per week of extracurricular activity.

While extracurricular programs and student employment should be designed and offered to encourage widespread student participation, extent of participation should be monitored to assure healthy participation.