Year of Publication


Paper Type

Master's Thesis


College of Education and Human Services

Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)



First Advisor

Dr. Sandra K. McDonald

Second Advisor

Dr. Royal Van Horn

Third Advisor

Dr. Paul Eggen


One hundred forty students in grades 3, 5 and 8 were tested to compare error patterns for whole number addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Results showed that error patterns do persist from grade to grade. The most prevalent errors were: lack of mastery of basic addition and multiplication facts; failure to understand place value and numeration; and confusion with subtraction and regrouping. The study concluded that because error patterns endure, teachers must be prepared to identify and remediate, as well as prevent errors through informed methods. Future studies should focus on error patterns in other grades and the effect of computer assisted instruction on student errors.

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