Bioinspired Brønsted Acid-Promoted Regioselective Tryptophan Isoprenylations
Tryptophan-containing isoprenoid indole alkaloid natural products are well known for their intricate structural architectures and significant biological activities. Nature employs dimethylallyl tryptophan synthases (DMATSs) or aromatic indole prenyltransferases (iPTs) to catalyze regio- and stereoselective prenylation of l-Trp. Regioselective synthetic routes that isoprenylate cyclo-Trp-Trp in a 2,5-diketopiperazine (DKP) core, in a desymmetrizing manner, are nonexistent and are highly desirable. Herein, we present an elaborate report on Brønsted acid-promoted regioselective tryptophan isoprenylation strategy, applicable to both the monomeric amino acid and its dimeric l-Trp DKP. This report outlines a method that regio- and stereoselectively increases sp3 centers of a privileged bioactive core. We report on conditions involving screening of Brønsted acids, their conjugate base as salt, solvent, temperature, and various substrates with diverse side chains. Furthermore, we extensively delineate effects on regio- and stereoselection of isoprenylation and their stereochemical confirmation via NMR experiments. Regioselectively, the C3-position undergoes normal-isoprenylation or benzylation and forms exo-ring-fused pyrroloindolines selectively. Through appropriate prenyl group migrations, we report access to the bioactive tryprostatin alkaloids, and by C3-normal-farnesylation, we access anticancer drimentines as direct targets of this method. The optimized strategy affords iso-tryprostatin B-type products and predrimentine C with 58 and 55% yields, respectively. The current work has several similarities to biosynthesis, such as - reactions can be performed on unprotected substrates, conditions that enable Brønsted acid promotion, and they are easy to perform under ambient conditions, without the need for stoichiometric levels of any transition metal or expensive ligands.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Khopade, T.M., Ajayan, K., Joshi, S.S., Lane, A.>, Viswanathan, R. (2021) Bioinspired Brønsted Acid-Promoted Regioselective Tryptophan Isoprenylations. ACS Omega, 6(16), 10840-10858. DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.1c00515