Population genetics of introduced and native populations of the green mussel, Perna viridis: Determining patterns of introduction
Genetic variation can be used to determine routes of introduction of non-native species and whether introduced populations lost variation during establishment. The present study sought to determine whether multiple, geographically isolated non-native populations of the green mussel, Perna viridis, were the product of a stepping stone expansion of a single introduction or from multiple independent introductions from the native range. Measurements of genetic variation were compared among five introduced populations and three populations from within the native range. We sequenced 650 bp of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I from 280 samples from five introduced populations and another 190 samples from three native populations. Haplotype frequencies of all introduced populations were not significantly different from each other, but virtually all populations differed from samples taken from the native range. Measurements of genetic variation tended to suggest that introduced populations had less variation than most native populations and there was no evidence for admixture in any of the introduced populations. The genetic data and Monte Carlo simulations both provide compelling evidence of a stepping-stone pattern of introduction of P. viridis from the native range to Trinidad, and from Trinidad to other locations in the Caribbean and United States. The lack of genetic variation in introduced populations suggests that the initial introduction was relatively small and the lack of admixture suggests a single original source population. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Gilg, Johnson, E. G., Gobin, J., Matthew Bright, B., & Ortolaza, A. I. (2012). Population genetics of introduced and native populations of the green mussel, Perna viridis: determining patterns of introduction. Biological Invasions, 15(2), 459–472. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-012-0301-2