Testing Deterrence Theory with Offenders: The Empirical Validity of Stafford and Warr's Model
Stafford and Warr (1993) reconceptualized general and specific deterrence into a single theory in which individuals' propensities to engage in crime are based on a combination of personal and vicarious experiences with being punished and avoiding punishment. The current study extends prior tests of this conceptualization of deterrence by expanding the definition of vicarious experience, analyzing extralegal as well as legal consequences, examining multiple types of offending behavior, and drawing its data from a sample of work release facility inmates. The results fail to support legal deterrence as an explanation of offending for this sample but suggest the importance of extralegal consequences. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Sitren, & Applegate, B. K. (2012). Testing Deterrence Theory with Offenders: The Empirical Validity of Stafford and Warr’s Model. Deviant Behavior, 33(6), 492–506. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2011.636685