The Bidirectional Causal Relation Between Implicit Stereotypes and Implicit Prejudice
Although stereotypes and prejudice are commonly regarded as conceptually distinct but related constructs, previous research remains silent on the processes underlying their relation. Applying the balance-congruity principle to the concepts (a) group, (b) valence, and (c) attribute, we argue that the valence of attributes contained in a group-stereotype shapes evaluations of the group, while prejudice toward a group influences which attributes are stereotypically associated with the group. Using fictitious (Experiments 1 and 3) and real (Experiments 2 and 4) groups, the current studies demonstrate that (a) experimentally induced changes in the valence of semantic attributes associated with a group (stereotypes) influence implicit prejudice toward that group (Experiments 1 and 2), and (b) experimentally induced changes in the valence of a group (prejudice) influence implicit stereotyping of that group (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings demonstrate a bidirectional causal relation between prejudice and stereotypes.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Phills, C. E., Hahn, A., & Gawronski, B. (2020). The Bidirectional Causal Relation Between Implicit Stereotypes and Implicit Prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 46(9), 1318–1330. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167219899234