Ttc39c is upregulated during skeletal muscle atrophy and modulates ERK1/2 MAP kinase and hedgehog signaling
Tetratricopeptide repeat domain containing 39c (Ttc39c) is expressed in skeletal muscle and is transcriptionally activated in response to neurogenic atrophy in mice. Expression analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blots revealed that Ttc39c is expressed in both proliferating and differentiated muscle cells, peaking during early differentiation and then decreasing as cells progress further through the differentiation process. To further analyze the transcriptional regulation of Ttc39c, promoter fragments of the gene were cloned and fused with the secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene. The Ttc39c reporter plasmids were then transfected into cultured mouse muscle cells and found to have transcriptional activity. Furthermore, overexpression of MyoD and myogenin resulted in significant transcriptional repression of the Ttc39c reporter genes. To determine subcellular localization, an expression plasmid with the Ttc39c complementary DNA fused with green fluorescent protein was transfected into muscle cells and analyzed by confocal fluorescent microscopy showing that Tct39c localizes exclusively to the cytoplasm of cultured cells. To assess potential function in muscle, Ttc39c was overexpressed leading to vitiated muscle cell differentiation, impaired ERK1/2 MAP Kinase and Hedgehog signaling, and increased expression of IFT144 and IFT43, which are part of the IFT-A complex involved in retrograde transport in primary cilia. Interestingly, Ttc39c knockdown also resulted in inhibition of muscle cell differentiation and impaired Hedgehog and MAP Kinase signaling but did not affect IFT144 or IFT433 expression. The results of this study demonstrate that muscle cell differentiation is sensitive to abnormal Ttc39c expression and that normal Ttc39c expression appears to be necessary for proper MAP Kinase and Hedgehog signal transduction in developing muscle cells.
Journal of Cellular Physiology
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Hayes, C.S., Labuzan, S.A., Menke, J.A., Haddock, A.N., Waddell, D.S. (2019).Ttc39c is upregulated during skeletal muscle atrophy and modulates ERK1/2 MAP kinase and hedgehog signaling. Journal of Cellular Physiology. 234(12), 23807-23824.