Paper Type

Master's Thesis


College of Computing, Engineering & Construction

Degree Name

Master of Science in Civil Engineering (MSCE)



NACO controlled Corporate Body

University of North Florida. School of Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Thobias Sando

Second Advisor

Dr. Ramin Shabanpour

Third Advisor

Dr. Priyanka Alluri

Department Chair

Dr. Alan Harris


Micromobility devices and golf carts (GCs)/Low speed vehicles(LSVs) are urban transportation solutions that provide short-distance travel options, including first- and last-mile trips. They mostly operate at speeds of 15 mi/h to 35 mi/h. The micromobility devices include e-scooters and e-bikes. The micromobility devices and golfcarts are increasing rapidly in the transportation system, and thus, it is necessary to explore their various factors. The objective of this study is to explore the user experience and evaluate the mobility benefits of the micromobility systems in Florida.

A survey was conducted in various cities with a substantial user base of micromobility devices. Various descriptive and inferential analyses were done to show user behavior trends and patterns and analyze the factors influencing user adoption and satisfaction. The survey was focused on golf carts, e-scooters, and e-bike users. The study found that most golf carts (GC) are privately owned, and they are used daily for various purposes, such as everyday commuting, everyday errands, and transporting children to school. The golf carts are mainly driven on the right-hand side of the road or in a shared road lane, depending on the infrastructure present. Golf carts have numerous benefits, such as being easy to operate and drive, with good acceleration and handling, and ease of access.

Regarding e-scooters and e-bikes, the results indicate that most users get their vehicles by using sharing apps, and they are also mostly used for everyday commuting and entertainment purposes. The e-scooters and e-bikes are mostly driven on bike lanes and sidewalks, reducing the possibility of crashes with other modes of transport. Both e-scooters and e-bikes have numerous advantages, such as being easy to ride, good for the environment, cheaper transportation, and ease of access. A chi-square test was conducted, and the results show that user characteristics have an impact on the purpose of using micromobility devices. Furthermore, a Decision Tree ensemble model shows that everyday errands, daily use, and ownership are the most important variables affecting the choice of using LSV/GC, and gender is the least important factor affecting the choice of using LSV/GC.

To evaluate the mobility benefits of micromobility devices, a VISSIM microscopic simulation and travel time reliability study were done in separate areas. For the VISSIM microscopic simulation, a VISSIM model was created where golfcart and other private vehicles were compared in terms of relative delay, travel times, and queue delay. The study was done in the Nocatee Community, a GC community in Jacksonville, Florida. The simulation results show that as the GC composition increases, the travel time, relative delay, and queue delay for private vehicles decrease. The findings of this study shed light on the potential benefits of incorporating GCs into transportation systems, particularly in school zones.

Travel time reliability study was conducted in Gainesville, where a travel time comparison of three modes of transport (Buses, Private cars, and e-scooters) was done. The analysis used a buffer index(BI) factor for evaluation. The BI represents the extra time that a traveler should allocate to their journey to ensure a 95% probability of arriving on time. The results show that Micromobility is the most reliable mode of transportation, boasting a BI of 12.0%, which means that choosing micromobility guarantees more consistent travel times when navigating the selected route. Furthermore, an ANOVA test was done, and its results confirm that there is a significant statistical difference between the mean travel times for the modes of transportation. The findings from the study indicate that opting for micromobility services as the mode of transportation within the campus offers a more reliable and consistent travel experience compared to private cars and transit, as it may lead to travel time savings and thus minimizing delay. The findings from this study will be useful for transportation agencies, manufacturers, and service providers to improve their services.

Available for download on Monday, January 05, 2026