Paper Type

Master's Thesis


College of Education and Human Services

Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)



First Advisor

Dr. James Cangelosi

Second Advisor

Dr. Royal Van Horn

Third Advisor

Dr. James Mittelstadt


The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the achievement levels of second grade students when twenty-one students experienced instruction on the bio-ecosystems where the learning activities were primarily outdoors along a nature trail and a comparable group of twenty-three students experienced instruction on the same bio-ecosystems where the learning activities were located indoors. An emphasis on literature approach was utilized to teach a set of sixteen objectives centering around an environmental theme. Each group received instruction for-45 minutes daily for a period of three weeks and experienced equivalent "hands-on" learning activities.
A gain score was determined by computing the difference between each student's pre-test and post-test achievement raw scores. A t test score of 1.31 resulted and it was concluded that there was no significant difference in achievement levels of a group of comparable students receiving instruction on bio-ecosystems outdoors and a group of students experiencing the same instructions indoors.

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